Class Notes on Sacred History
Volume I: The Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Ruth and Job.
J. W. McGarvey (1893)
Table of Contents
Part First: The Egyptian Bondage. Ex. 1:1-15:21.
THE EGYPTIAN BONDAGE.
i. 1-xv. 21.
§ I. ISRAEL IS BROUGHT INTO BONDAGE. i. 1-22.
1. Introductory Statement. 1-17.
- What the connection of this book with Genesis? 6, cf. Gen. l. 26.
- Why the names of the patriarchs repeated? 2-5.
- What change in the rate of increase? 7: Gen. xlvi. 27, cf. Acts, vii. 14.
2. Israel Subjected to Hard Labor. 8-14.
- Who was the new king? See Rawlinson, Ancient Egypt, II.
- Why did he not know Joseph?
- Why his extravagant words? 9.
- What enemies particularly feared? and why? 10, cf. Rawlinson, II.
- Why think that hard labor would check the increase? 10, 11.
- What kind of bricks? and what service in the field? 14.
- What was the work of building the "store cities"? 11.
3. Attempts To Slay Israel's Male Children. 15-22. 
- Why would two midwives be sufficient? 15.
- Was their answer to the king true? 19.
- In what sense did God make them houses? 21, cf. ii. 11.
- How many did Pharaoh hope to drown? 22.
§ II. GOD PROVIDES A DELIVERER FOR ISRAEL. ii. 1-iv. 31.
1. Moses Born and Adopted by Pharaoh's Daughter. ii. 1-10.
- What faith exhibited by the parents and what reward for it? 2-4, 9, cf. Heb. xi. 23.
- What kind of bathing? 5.
- His career as an Egyptian? 10, cf. Acts vii. 22.
- What was God's design in this?
2. Moses Slays an Egyptian and Flees to Midian. 11-22.
- His age, and his purpose? 11, cf. Acts vii. 23-25.
- How had he learned that he was a Hebrew?
- Quote and explain Paul's comment on this transaction. Heb. xi. 24-26.
- Where was the land of Midian? 15, 16.
- Why did Moses dare to interfere with the shepherds? 17, 19.
- What was God's purpose in this exile?
3. The Oppression Continued. 23-25.
- What king now dies? 23, cf. Rawlinson, II. 163.
- What great public works did he execute? and by what laborers? ib. 169-175.
- Which probably executed by the Hebrews?
- Did he continue the slaughter of the infants?
- What of his mummy and that of Seti I?
4. Moses Is Commissioned To Deliver Israel. iii. 1-14.
- How was Jethro the father in law of Moses, and priest of Midian? 1, cf. ii. 18.
- Why is Horeb here called "the mountain  of God"? 1.
- Why put off his shoes? 5.
- What eastern custom is derived from this?
- Whence our custom of uncovering our heads in holy places?
- What change in Moses? and why? 11, cf. Acts vii. 23-25.
- Why would they ask, "What is his name"? 13.
- Why say, "I am that I am"? 14.
5. He Is Told how To Proceed in Egypt. 15-22.
- Why is the name here announced, God's "memorial to all generations"? 15.
- Why ask for only "three days' journey"? 18.
- Explain what is said about letting Israel go. 19, 20.
- On what ground could they ask for Jewels, etc. 22.
- What is here meant by "spoil the Egyptians"? 22.
6. Two Obstacles Named and Provided For. iv. 1-17.
- Why should these signs convince the people? 8, 9.
- Why did Moses claim to be slow of speech? 10, cf. Acts vii. 22.
- What opportunity had Aaron enjoyed for learning eloquence? 14.
- Why was he coming to meet Moses? 14, cf. 27.
7. Moses Returns to Egypt and Convinces the Elders. 18-31.
- Why conceal his chief purpose from Jethro? 18.
- In what sense was Israel God's firstborn? 22, cf. Col. i. 15; Heb. xii. 23.
- How did he know the meaning of the vision? 25.
- Why did he kiss Aaron?
- What convinced the elders? 30, 31.
- Who were they? 
§ III. THE FIRST APPEAL TO PHARAOH AND ITS RESULTS. v. 1-vii. 7.
1. The Demand of Moses Rejected. v. 1-14.
- By what titles did he speak of God? 1, 3, cf. Gen. ii. 4.
- Why did not Pharaoh know Jehovah? 2.
- What was his conception of the purpose of Moses? 5.
- Why impose greater burdens? 9.
- What use made of straw? 7.
- In what season was this? 7, 12.
2. The Officers of Israel Cry to Pharaoh, and Moses Cries to God. v. 15-vi. 1.
- Why cast the blame on Moses? 21.
- Why did he cast it on God?
- What was God's design in allowing this severe treatment?
3. The Name Jehovah and a Fresh Message to Israel. vi. 2-9.
- In what sense had God not been known to the fathers as Jehovah? 3, cf. Gen. xxii. 14; xxxii. 9.
- Why say, "Ye shall know that I am Jehovah, your God"? 7.
- Why the covenant mentioned? 4, 5.
- Why repeat so often, "I am Jehovah"? 2, 6, 7, 8.
- Why no heed to this message? 9.
- Significance of "Jehovah"? Cf. xxxiv. 1-8.
4. The Demand on Pharaoh To Be Renewed. 10-13.
- When had Israel not hearkened? 12, cf. 9; iv. 31.
- Meaning of "uncircumcised lips"? 12.
5. The Genealogy of Moses and Aaron. 14-17, cf. Num. xxvi. 59.
- Why give so many names not in the line of ancestry?
- Average ages of these patriarchs? 16, 18, 20.
- How old must Jochebed have been when Moses was born? 
[(1.) Levi was about sixty when he came into Egypt. If Jochebed was born when he was one hundred and thirty, her birth was seventy years after the migration.
(2.) Moses was born eighty years before the exodus. vii. 7.
(3.) If the stay in Egypt was two hundred and ten years, her age at the birth of Moses was two hundred and ten minus eighty, minus seventy, which equals sixty.
(4.) If the stay was four hundred and thirty years (xii. 40, 41), several generations are omitted.]
- Why Paul say four hundred and thirty years? Gal. iii. 17.
6. The Orders to Moses Repeated. vi. 28-vii. 7.
- In what sense a "god" and a "prophet"? 1.
- Purpose of the proposed hardening? 4, 5.
- How had Aaron escaped death by drowning? 7.
§ IV. THE TEN PLAGUES. vii. 8-xii. 36.
1. The Demand Repeated and Supported by a Sign. vii. 8-13.
- How did the magicians do "the same"? 12.
- What superiority shown by Moses?
- Why begin with miracles they could imitate?
2. The Plague of Blood. 14-25.
- Why was Pharaoh going to the water? 15.
- Why the same rod?
- Purpose of this miracle? 17.
- Why smite in Pharaoh's presence? 20.
- Why say, "rivers and streams," seeing Egypt has but one river? 19.
- Was it actual blood? 20, 21, 24.
- How did the magicians do this? and what difference in the extent of what  was done? 22.
- How long did this plague last? 25.
- What bearing had it on Egyptian superstition?
3. The Plague of Frogs. viii. 1-15.
- Why made to come out of the river? 3, 5.
- How did the magicians bring frogs? 7.
- How did Pharaoh know that Jehovah had caused this plague? 8, cf. 1-3.
- Why appoint a day for its removal? 10.
- Who now hardens Pharaoh? and why? 15.
4. The Plague of Lice. 16-19.
- What marginal renderings instead of "lice"?
- Why could not the magicians do this? 18.
- If they had really made frogs, could they not have made lice?
- Why acknowledge this the finger of God? 19.
- What effect on Egyptian worship?
5. The Plague of Flies. 20-32.
- Why exempt the land of Goshen. 22.
- Why set a day? 23.
- Why propose that they sacrifice in the land? 25.
- How would they sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians? 26.
- Had the Hebrews kept up their sacrifices?
- Why again set a day? 29.
- Why not one fly left? 31.
6. The Plague of Murrain. ix. 1-7.
- How could the Hebrews, being in bondage, have cattle? 4.
- What was the nature of their bondage?
- In what sense did all die? 6, cf. 20.
- What cattle had the Egyptians that were especially sacred? See Rawlinson, Ancient Egypt, I, 196; II, 176, 269.
- What was the effect on their superstition? 
7. The Plague of Boils. 8-12.
- Why in the sight of Pharaoh? 8.
- What are boils with blains? 9.
- Why could not the magicians now stand before Moses? 11. Rawlinson, Ancient Egypt, I, 308.
- What effect on their temple service?
8. The Plague of Hail. 13-35.
- What the point in "none like me in all the earth"? 14.
- Meaning of "made thee to stand"? 16, cf.15.
- How were the threats of Moses now regarded by the people? 20, 21.
- Meaning of "fire ran down unto the earth"? 23, 24.
- Why now admit his sin? 27.
- Why the thunder and hail so terrifying? 28.
- How could Moses and Pharaoh's messenger pass safely through the hail? 27, 29.
- What was the season of the year? 31, 32.
- How long since the return of Moses? Cf. v. 7, 12.
9. The Plague of Locusts Threatened. x. 1-11.
- Why that they may tell their sons? 1, 2.
- Who are meant by Pharaoh's "servants"? 7.
- To what conviction had they now come?
- Why wish only the men to go? 11.
- Why the threat of locusts so alarming?
10. The Plague Brought, and Its Effect. 12-20.
- Why an east wind? 13.
- What now of the wheat and spelt? 15, cf. ix. 32.
- Why say the locusts "went up" over the land? 14.
- Why the humble confession and request? 16, 17, cf. 3.
- Why did the locusts fall into the sea? 19. 
11. The Plague of Darkness. 21-29.
- Meaning of, "darkness that may be felt"? 21.
- At what time of day did it begin and end? 22.
- Why propose another compromise? 24.
- How did Pharaoh know that this was from God?
- What effect on their idolatry?
- Why threaten the life of Moses?
- Why had he not threatened him sooner?
12. The Last Plague Threatened. xi. 1-10.
- When was this threat made to Pharaoh? 8, cf. x. 28, 29.
- When was the asking for jewels to begin? and why? 2, 3.
- Why the man Moses so great? 3.
- Meaning of "maidservant behind the mill"? 5.
13. The Feast of the Passover Ordained. xii. 1-20.
- What the name of the month? 2; xiii. 4.
- What change in making it the first month?
- Why the feast called a passover? 11, 13.
- Why establish a memorial of it? 14.
- Meaning of "holy convocation"? 16.
14. Moses Instructs the Elders. 21-28.
- Who were the elders? 21.
- What is hyssop? 22.
- Who the destroyer? 23.
- Why the inquiries of children? and why the answer?
- What interval between the threat and the tenth day? xi. 4-8; xii. 1, 2.
15. The Tenth Plague. 29-36.
- How could there be a firstborn in every house? 30.
- Why say, "bless me also"? 32.
- Why take unleavened dough? 34, cf. 39.
- Why so willing to give jewels? 35, 36. 
§ V. THE MARCH OUT OF EGYPT. xii. 37-xv. 21.
1. The Departure of Israel. xii. 37-42.
- Where did they first assemble and why? 37.
- How many persons in all? 37.
- How long had they been in Egypt? 40, 41.
- How reconcile this with Gen. xv. 13, 16?
- How with Gal. iii. 17? Cf. the Septuagint rendering of 40. [This Version which in Paul's day was the common Bible of the people, the original Hebrew having become a dead language, is followed by Paul, and it reads: "the sojourning of the children in Israel, which they sojourned in Egypt and in the land of Canaan was four hundred and thirty years."] Critical editions of the LXX add pente.
2. Who May Eat the Passover. 43-51.
- What the single condition of eating?
- Why should not a bone of the lamb be broken? 46, cf. Jno. xix. 31-36.
3. The Sanctification of the Firstborn. xiii. 1, 2.
- Meaning of "openeth the womb"? 2.
4. The Law and the Annual Feast Repeated. 3-10.
- Why tell their sons? 8.
5. How the Firstborn To Be Sanctified. 11-16.
- Was it the firstborn male? or the male that was a firstborn? 12, 15, 2.
- Why redeem the child and the ass? 13.
- What of the firstborn of other unclean animals? Num. xviii. 15.
- Why would their sons ask  about this? and how often would the story be repeated? 14, 15.
- How would it be "for a sign upon thine hand," etc.? 16.
6. The March from Succoth to Etham. 17-22.
- Force of the reason for not taking the direct route to Canaan? 17.
- How did the Israelites arm themselves? 18.
- In what condition were the bones of Joseph? 19, cf. Gen. l. 25, 26.
- What need of the pillar of cloud? 21, 22.
- Why not let them be guided by the command of Moses?
7. The People Encamp by the Sea and Pharaoh Pursues Them. xiv. 1-14.
- Turn back from what point? 2, cf. 20.
- At what angle must they have turned from their previous course?
- In what kind of place was this camp? 3.
- Where are the places named? 2.
- If the people were at the head of the gulf of Suez, would they be "entangled in the land"?
- What site of the camp best corresponds with the account given here? See Lands of the Bible, 438-444.
- How long must they have remained in this camp?
- Had the Israelites left Egypt reluctantly? 12.
- Why tell them to stand still? 13.
8. The Passage of the Sea. 15-22.
- Why now saw, "go forward"? 15, cf. 16.
- Were the waters divided by the wind? or by a miracle? 16, 21.
- Had the wind blown hard enough to divide them, what would have become of the people?
- What was the probable extent of the opening?
- In  what sense were the waters "a wall to them" on each side? 22.
9. The Overthrow of the Egyptians. 23-31.
- How did they know that Israel had advanced? 23, cf. 20.
- Why did they dare to follow?
- It is probable that Pharaoh led them in person?
- Why think the Lord was fighting for Israel? 24, 25.
- Why did one escape? 28.
- Could this have been, if the water had been shallow, or narrow, or had been removed by wind and tide?
- Effect on Israel? 31.
- Was Pharaoh himself drowned? 6-8, 10, 17, 18: Ps. cxxxvi. 13-15.
10. The Song of Moses. xv. 1-21.
- How could Moses compose the song, and the people sing it so soon?
- What part was taken by the women? 20, 21.
- Why is Miriam here called a prophetess? 20.
- How could Moses allude to Philistia, Edom, Moab, and Canaan as having already heard of this? 14-16.
HARDENING PHARAOH'S HEART.
- In what did the hardening consist?
- By whom was it effected?
- What did God do to harden him?
[a. He made a demand in conflict with Pharaoh's financial and political interests, and with his pride as a king.
b. He removed the plagues as Pharaoh relented.]
- What did Pharaoh do to harden his own heart?
[a. He studied interest instead of duty.
b. He yielded to the promptings of pride.]
- Was it just on God's part?