Modern Literal Version
[Romans 1]

     {If you are reading the Letters written to Christians first, this is a better and more chronological order: James, 1&2 Thessalonians, Galatians, 1&2 Corinthians, then here in Romans, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1&2 Peter, Jude, Philemon, 1 Timothy, Titus, Hebrews, 2 Timothy, 1-3 John, Revelation. See the Reading Chart about page 13. But even if you don't follow this order always read Galatians before Romans.}

     1:1 Paul, bondservant of Jesus Christ, a called apostle, having been separated* to the good-news of God, 1:2 which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy Scriptures, 1:3 concerning his Son, (who was born from the seed of David according to the flesh, 1:4 who was determined as being the Son of God in power, according to the spirit of holiness, out of the resurrection of the dead), Jesus Christ our Lord. 1:5 Through whom, we received grace and apostleship, into the obedience of the faith in all the nations, on behalf of his name; 1:6 among whom you* are also called {Or: invited; and in all other instances in the MLV} of Jesus Christ. 1:7 To all the ones who are in Rome, beloved of God, called holy-ones: grace to you* and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

     1:8 First indeed, I am giving-thanks to my God through Jesus Christ on behalf of all of you*, that your* faith is proclaimed in the whole world. 1:9 For* God is my witness, to whom I am giving-divine service in my spirit in the good-news of his Son, as I constantly make* a remembrance of you*. 1:10 I beseech God always in my prayers, if somehow now, I will be prospered in the will of God to come to you* someday, 1:11 for* I am longing to see you*, in order that I may give to you* some spiritual gift*, *that* you* may be established; 1:12 and this is my prayer to be encouraged together among you*, through the faith in one another, both yours* and mine. 1:13 Now brethren, I do not wish you* to be ignorant that I often purposed to come to you* (and I was prevented till presently), in order that I might also have some fruit among you*, just-as among the rest of the Gentiles. 1:14 I am a debtor both to Greeks and to Barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish. 1:15 So, as in me, I am eager to proclaim the good-news to you* also who are in Rome.

     1:16 For* I am not ashamed of the good-news of the Christ; for* it is the power of God *for salvation to everyone who believes; both to the Jew first and to the Greek. 1:17 For* the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to {Or: into} faith in it; just-as it has been written, 'But the righteous will be living from faith.' {Hab. 2:4}

     1:18 For* the wrath of God is revealed from heaven upon all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men and upon those holding back the truth in unrighteousness; 1:19 because what is known of God is apparent among them; for* God manifested it to them. 1:20 For* the invisible things of him are clearly seen from the creation of the world, being perceived by the things-made, both his eternal power and divinity; *that* they may be without defense; 1:21 because having known God, they did not glorify him as God, or gave-thanks to him, but became-futile in their reasonings and their heart was darkened without understanding. 1:22 They were foolish, claiming to be wise, 1:23 and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness of an image of corruptible man and of birds and of four footed mammals and of reptiles.

     1:24 Hence also, God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts into uncleanness, to dishonor their bodies among themselves. 1:25 They exchanged the truth of God into the lie and worshiped and gave-divine service to the created thing contrary to the one who created it, who is gracious* forever. Amen.

     1:26 Because of this, God gave them up to passions of dishonor; for* both their females exchanged the natural use into what is contrary to anything natural; 1:27 and the males also likewise, having left the natural use of the female, burned in their lust toward one another, males with* males working forth indecency and receiving in themselves the recompense which was essential from their error.

     1:28 And just-as they did not approve to have God in their full knowledge, God gave them up to an unapproved mind, to do* things which are not proper. 1:29 They have been filled with all: unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, greed, malice; full of: envy, murder, strife, treachery, maliciousness. They are: malicious whisperers, 1:30 slandering, spiteful to God, insolent, haughty, braggarts, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, 1:31 without understanding, covenant-breakers, cold-hearted, implacable and unmerciful. 1:32 Who, having fully known the ordinance of God, (that those practicing such things are worthy of death), are not only doing* the same things, but also are consenting with those who are practicing the same things.

[Romans 2]

     2:1 Hence O man, you are without defense, everyone who judges; for* in what you are judging the other, you are condemning yourself; for* you who judge are practicing the same things. 2:2 Now we know that the judgment of God is according to truth upon those who practice such things. 2:3 Now O man, who is judging those who practice such things and you are doing* the same things. Are you reasoning this that you will be fleeing from the judgment of God? 2:4 Or do you despise the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience, being ignorant that the kindness of God is leading you to repentance? 2:5 But you store up wrath for yourself according to your hardness and unrepentant heart in the day of wrath and of revelation and of the righteous judgment of God; 2:6 who will 'repay to each according to his works.' {Pro 24:12b, Psa 62:12} 2:7 Everlasting life to those who indeed by endurance in good work are seeking glory and honor and incorruption. 2:8 But to those seeking things out of selfish ambition and who are indeed disobedient to the truth, but obey unrighteousness, he will repay with fury and wrath, 2:9 affliction and distress upon every soul of man who is working evil, both of the Jew first and of the Greek. 2:10 But glory and honor and peace to every man who is working good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek; 2:11 for* there is no favoritism with God.

     2:12 For* as many as sinned without the law will also perish without the law. And as many as sinned in the law will be judged through the law. 2:13 For* the hearers of the law are not righteous with God, but the doers of the law will be made righteous. 2:14 For* whenever the Gentiles, not having the law, practice the things of the law by nature, these, not having the law, are the law to themselves; 2:15 who show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying together with their hearts, and between one another, their reasonings are accusing or either defending them; 2:16 in the day when God will be judging the secrets of men through Jesus Christ, according to my teaching of the good-news.

     2:17 Behold, you who are named a Jew and rest upon the law and boast in God, 2:18 and know God's will and approve the things which carry more-value, being instructed out of the law, 2:19 and have confidence in yourself to be a guide of the blind, a light of those who are in darkness, 2:20 a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of infants, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth.

     2:21 Therefore you who are teaching a different one, are you not teaching yourself? You who are preaching not to steal, are you stealing? 2:22 You who are saying to not commit adultery, are you committing adultery? You who detest idols, are you a temple looter? 2:23 You who are boasting in the law, through your transgression of the law, are you dishonoring God? 2:24 'For* the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you*,' just-as it has been written. 2:25 For* circumcision indeed profits, if you practice the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. {Isa 52:5}

     2:26 Therefore, if the uncircumcision are observing the ordinances of the law, will his uncircumcision not be counted toward circumcision? 2:27 And the uncircumcision by nature who is completing the law, will be judging you, who are a transgressor of the law through the writing {Or: 'scripture' meaning 'scriptures' also in 2:29, 7:6.} and circumcision. 2:28 For* he is not a Jew openly; nor is circumcision what is openly in the flesh, 2:29 but he is a Jew in the hidden thing, and the circumcision is of the heart, in spirit, not in the writing; whose praise is not from men, but from God.

[Romans 3]

     3:1 Therefore what is the supremacy of the Jew? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3:2 Much, according to every manner! For* indeed, first, that they were entrusted with the oracles of God. 3:3 For* what if some disbelieved? Their unbelief will be not doing-away-with the faithfulness of God, will it? 3:4 Let it not happen! Now, let God become true, but every man a liar; just-as it has been written, '*That you should be made righteous in your words and may overcome when you are judged.' {Psa 51:4} 3:5 But if our unrighteousness is establishing the righteousness of God, what will we say? The God who brings upon us wrath is not unrighteous, is he? (I speak according to the manner of man.) 3:6 Let it not happen! Otherwise how will God judge the world?

     3:7 For* if the truth of God in my lie abounded to his glory, why am I also still being judged like a sinner? 3:8 And why not say: Let us do* evil things, in order that good things should come (just-as we are blasphemed and just-as some say that we speak)? Whose condemnation is just!

     3:9 Therefore what? Are we, Jews special? Certainly not; for* we accused beforehand, both Jews and Greeks to all be under sin; 3:10 just-as it has been written, 'There is none righteous, not even one. 3:11 No one is understanding. No one is seeking out God. 3:12 They all shunned God. They were becoming-useless at the same time. No one is practicing kindness; no one is insofar as even one.' {Psa 14:1-3 & 53:1-3} 3:13 'Their throat has been an opened burial chamber; they were being treacherous with their tongues.' {Psa 5:9} 'The poison of the asps is under their lips.' {Psa 140:3} 3:14 'Whose mouth is full of evil-cursing and bitterness.' {Psa 10:7?} 3:15 'Their feet are swift to shed blood; 3:16 downfall and misery is in their ways; 3:17 and they did not know the way of peace.' {Isa 59:7,8} 3:18 'There is no fear of God in front of their eyes.' {Psa 36:1}

     3:19 Now we know how-much, as many things as the law says, it is speaking to those in the law; in order that every mouth may be sealed and all the world may become under the sentence of God; 3:20 because every flesh will not be made righteous in his sight from the works of the law; for* through the law comes the full knowledge of sin.

     3:21 But now the righteousness of God has been manifested separate from the law, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; 3:22 even the righteousness of God through faith of Jesus Christ toward all and upon all those who believe; for* there is no distinction; 3:23 for* all have sinned and come-short of the glory of God. 3:24 All those who believe, being freely made righteous in his grace, through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus, 3:25 whom God purposed as an atonement through the faith in his blood in an example of his righteousness, because of the passing-over of the sins, having been done* beforehand, 3:26 (in the forbearance of God), even toward the example of his righteousness in this current time, *that* he may himself be righteous and who is making righteous the one from the faith of Jesus.

     3:27 Therefore where is the boasting? It was locked out. Through what law? Of works? No, but through the law of faith. 3:28 Therefore, we are reasoning for a man to be made righteous in faith separate from the works of the law. 3:29 Or is God the God of Jews only and not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also. 3:30 Since God is one, it is he who will be making righteous the circumcision out of faith and the uncircumcision through the faith. 3:31 Therefore, do we do-away-with the law through the faith? Let it not happen! But through the faith, we are establishing the law.

[Romans 4]

     4:1 Therefore what will we say, that Abraham, our father, according to the flesh, to have found? 4:2 For* if Abraham was made righteous out of works, he has grounds for boasting, but not toward God. 4:3 For* what does the Scripture say? 'And Abraham believed God and it was counted to him *for righteousness.' {Gen 15:6} 4:4 Now to the one who is working, the reward is not counted according to favor, but according to debt. 4:5 But to the one who is not working, but believes on the one who makes righteous the ungodly, his faith is counted toward righteousness. 4:6 Just-as David also says concerning the good-fortune of the man to whom God counts righteousness separate from works, 4:7 saying, 'Those whose lawlessnesses were forgiven and whose sins were covered are fortunate. 4:8 The man to whom the Lord should never count sin, is fortunate.' {Psa 32:1,2} 4:9 Therefore is this good-fortune upon the circumcision or also upon the uncircumcision? For* we say that his faith was counted to Abraham *for righteousness. 4:10 Therefore how was it counted? While being in circumcision or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. 4:11 And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith of which he had in the uncircumcision, *that* he might be the father of all those who believe, even through uncircumcision, *that* righteousness might also be counted to them; {Gen 17:10} 4:12 and the father of circumcision, to those not only from the circumcision, but to those who also are marching in the footprints of the faith of our father Abraham which he had in uncircumcision.

     4:13 For* the promise was to Abraham, or to his seed, for him to be heir of the world, but not through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. 4:14 For* if those from the law are heirs, the faith has been made void and the promise has been done-away-with. 4:15 For* the law is working wrath; for* where there is no law, neither is there transgression. 4:16 Because of this, it is from faith, in order that it may be according to grace; *that* the promise may be steadfast to all the seed; not to what is only from the law, but also to what is from the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all, 4:17 (as it has been written, 'I have placed you as a father of many nations' {Gen 17:5}), in front of God, the one whom he believed, who is giving-life to the dead and is calling the things which are not, as though they are. 4:18 Abraham who contrary to hope believed upon hope, *that* he might become a father of many nations, according to what had been spoken, So your seed will be. {Gen 15:5}

     4:19 And not being weak in faith, he did not consider his own body, already dead, (being* nearly a hundred years), and the deadness of Sarah's womb. 4:20 But he did not doubt through unbelief at the promise of God, but was empowered through the faith, having given glory to God, 4:21 and having been fully assured that what he has promised; he is able also to do*. 4:22 Hence it was also counted to him *for righteousness. 4:23 Now it was not written, 'It was counted to him,' because of him only; 4:24 but also, because of us to whom it is about to be counted, who believe on the one who raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead, 4:25 who was given up because of our trespasses and was raised up because of our justification {Or: being made righteous.}.

[Romans 5]

     5:1 Therefore having been made righteous from faith, we have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ; 5:2 through whom we also have had our access to this grace in the faith in which we are standing, and we are boasting in hope of the glory of God. 5:3 But not only in this, but we are also boasting in our afflictions, knowing that affliction is working endurance; 5:4 and endurance, approved character, and an approved character, hope; 5:5 and hope does not shame one, because the love* of God has been poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us.

     5:6 For* in our still being weak state, according to the proper time, Christ died on behalf of the ungodly. 5:7 For* scarcely will one die on behalf of a righteous person; for* perhaps someone might even dare to die on behalf of the good person. 5:8 But God is establishing his own love* toward us, that in our still being sinful state, Christ died on our behalf. 5:9 Therefore much more, having now been made righteous in his blood, we will be saved from the wrath of God through him. 5:10 For* if while being enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more, having been reconciled, we will be saved in his life; 5:11 and not only so, but we are also boasting in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation.

     5:12 Because of this, as sin entered into the world through one man and death through sin, and thus death went forth to all men, in which all have sinned. 5:13 For* Sin was in the world till the law, but sin is not charged to one's account when there is no law. 5:14 But death reigned from Adam till Moses, even on those who did not sin on the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a pattern of the future one. 5:15 But not like the trespass, so also is the gift*. For* if the many died by the trespass of the one, the favor of God and the gift by the favor of the one man, Jesus Christ, abounded much more to the many. 5:16 Now the gift is not as through one who sinned; for* indeed the judgment came from one into condemnation, but the gift* came from many trespasses into an act of righteousness. 5:17 For* if, by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; much more they, who are receiving the abundance of the favor and of the gift of righteousness, will be reigning in life through the one, who is Jesus Christ. 5:18 Therefore consequently*, as through one trespass the judgment came to all men to condemnation; so through the righteousness of one man the gift also came to all men into justification of life. 5:19 For* as through the one man's disobedience* the many were designated as sinners, so also through the obedience of the one the many will be designated as righteous. 5:20 But the law entered in beside us, in order that the trespass might increase, but where sin increased, the favor {Or: grace} over-abounded; 5:21 in order that, just-like sin reigned in death, so also the favor {Or: grace} might also reign through righteousness to everlasting life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

[Romans 6]

     6:1 Therefore what will we say? Are we remaining in sin, in order that grace {Or: favor; and so elsewhere in the letters to the congregations} may increase? 6:2 Let it not happen! We who died to sin, how will we still be living in it? 6:3 Or are you* ignorant that as many as were immersed* into Christ Jesus were immersed* into his death? 6:4 Therefore we were buried together with him through the immersion* into his death; in order that just-like Christ was raised up from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we might also walk in newness of life. 6:5 For* if we have become unified together with him in the likeness of his death, but also, we will be unified with him in the likeness of his resurrection. 6:6 Knowing this, that our old man was crucified together with him, in order that the body of sin might be done-away, that we are to be enslaved to sin no longer; 6:7 for* he who died has been made righteous away from sin. 6:8 But if we died together with Christ, we believe that we will also be living together with him; 6:9 knowing that Christ having been raised up from the dead dies no more; death has no more lordship over him. 6:10 For* that death that he died to sin, he died to sin once for all, but that life that he lives, he is living to God. 6:11 So you* also, count* yourselves to be indeed dead to sin, but living to God in Christ Jesus our Lord.

     6:12 Therefore do not let sin reign in your* mortal body, *that* you* might obey* it in its lusts; 6:13 nor present* your* members as weapons of unrighteousness to sin, but present* yourselves to God, as living from the dead and your* members as weapons of righteousness to God. 6:14 For* sin will not have lordship over you*; for* you* are not under the law, but under grace. 6:15 Therefore what? Will we sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace? Let it not happen! 6:16 Do you* not know, that to whom you* present yourselves as bondservants to obedience, you* are the bondservants to whom you* obey*; either of sin to death or of obedience to righteousness? 6:17 But gratitude to God, that, though you* were bondservants of sin, you* obeyed* from the heart the pattern {Or: example; 6:3-6} of teaching to which you* were given; 6:18 and having been made free from sin, you* were enslaved to righteousness.

     6:19 I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your* flesh; for* just-like you* presented your* members as bondservants to uncleanness and to lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present* your* members as bondservants to righteousness leading to holiness. 6:20 For* when you* were bondservants of sin, you* were free in regard to the righteousness. 6:21 Therefore, what fruit were you* having then in the things of which you* are now ashamed? For* the end of those things is death. 6:22 But now, having been made free from sin and having been enslaved to God, you* have your* fruit leading to holiness and the end everlasting life. 6:23 For* the compensations of sin is death, but the gift* of God is everlasting life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

[Romans 7]


     7:1 Or are you* ignorant, brethren (for* I am speaking to men who know the law), that the law has lordship over a man inasmuch time as he is living? 7:2 For* the woman in wedlock has been bound by the law to the living husband, but if the husband dies, she has been done-away-with {i.e.: discharged} from the law of the husband. 7:3 Therefore consequently*, if the husband is living, if she becomes joined to a different man, she will be divinely-called, an adulteress. But if the husband dies, she is free from the law, she is not an adulteress, even if she had become joined to a different man.

     7:4 So-then my brethren, you* were also slain to the law through the body of Christ; *that* you* should become joined to a different one, that is to the one who was raised up from the dead, in order that we might bear-fruit to God. 7:5 For* when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, was working in our members, *that* they might bear-fruit to death. 7:6 But now we have been done-away-with {i.e.: discharged} from the law, having died in what we were being held; so-as for us to be enslaved in newness of the spirit and not in oldness of the writing.

     7:7 Therefore what will we say? Is the law sin? Let it not happen! But, I did not know sin, except through the law; for* I also did not know lusting {O.T. desire (but with an object); and elsewhere.}, except that the law was saying, Do not lust. {Exo 20:17} 7:8 But sin, having taken a starting-point, worked in me through the commandment all manner of lust; for* separate from the law sin is dead. 7:9 But I was previously living separate from the law, but when the commandment came, sin lived again through me and I died; 7:10 and the commandment which was to life, this one was found in me to be to death; 7:11 for* sin, having taken a starting-point through the commandment, deceived me and through it killed me. 7:12 So-then the law indeed is holy and the commandment holy and righteous and good. 7:13 Therefore what is the good thing for me, has it become death? Let it not happen! But sin, in order that it might appear as sin, through what is the good thing for me, was working death; in order that sin might become a surpassingly-better sinner through the commandment. 7:14 For* we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, having been sold* under sin.

     7:15 For* I do not know what I am working. For* I am practicing this thing which I do not will but instead I am doing* this thing which I am hating. 7:16 But if I am doing* this thing which I do not will, I acknowledge together with the law; that it is good. 7:17 So now I no longer am working it, but the sin which is dwelling in me. 7:18 For* I know what is a good thing is not dwelling in me, (that is, in my flesh); for* it is laying beside me to will it, but I am not finding what is a good thing to work it. 7:19 For* I am not doing* the good thing which I will, but instead I am practicing this evil thing which I do not will. 7:20 But if I am doing* this thing which I do not will, I am no longer working it, but the sin which is dwelling in me. 7:21 Consequently*, I find the law to me who is willing to do* the good thing– evil is laying beside me.

     7:22 For* I delight-inwardly in the law of God according to the inward man. 7:23 But I am seeing a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind and capturing me in the law of sin which is in my members. 7:24 O I am a miserable man! Who will rescue me out of the body of this death? 7:25 I am giving-thanks to God through Jesus Christ our Lord. Therefore consequently*, I myself, indeed, serve* the law of God with the mind, but I serve* the law of sin with the flesh.

[Romans 8]

     8:1 Consequently* now nothing is condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who are not walking according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. 8:2 For* the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free away from the law of sin and of death. 8:3 For* the law being powerless, in that it was weak through the flesh, God, having sent his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and concerning sin, condemned sin in the flesh; 8:4 in order that the ordinance of the law might be fulfilled in us, those who are not walking according to the flesh, but walking according to the Spirit. 8:5 For* those who are according to the flesh are mindful of the things of the flesh, but those who are according to the Spirit are mindful of the things of the Spirit. 8:6 For* the mindset of the flesh is death, but the mindset of the Spirit is life and peace; 8:7 because the mindset of the flesh is hostility toward God; for* it is not subject to the law of God, for* neither is it able to be; 8:8 and those who are in the flesh are not able to please God. 8:9 But you* are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed* the Spirit of God is dwelling in you*. But if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, this one is not his. 8:10 But if Christ is in you*, the body is indeed dead because of sin, but the spirit is life because of righteousness. 8:11 But if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus up from the dead is dwelling in you*, he who raised the Christ up from the dead will also be giving-life to your* mortal bodies through his Spirit who is dwelling in you*.

     8:12 Therefore consequently*, brethren, we are debtors but not to the flesh, not to live according to the flesh; 8:13 for* if you* are living according to the flesh, you* are about to die, but if you* slay the practices of the body in spirit, you* will be living. 8:14 For* as many as are led in the Spirit of God, these are sons of God. 8:15 For* you* did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you* received the spirit of sonship, in which we cry, Abba, Father. 8:16 The Spirit himself is testifying together with our spirit, that we are children of God; 8:17 and if children, then heirs; indeed, heirs of God and joint heirs of Christ; if indeed* we are suffering together with him, in order that we might also be glorified together with him.

     8:18 For* I reason that the sufferings of this current time are not worthy of complaint to the glory which is about to be revealed to us. 8:19 For* the earnest expectation of the creation is waiting for the revelation of the sons of God. 8:20 For* the creation was subjected to futility, not voluntarily, but because of the one who subjected it, in hope 8:21 that even the creation itself will be made free away from the bondage of corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God. 8:22 For* we know that all creation groans and travails together in pain till now. 8:23 But not only they, but we ourselves also who have the first-fruit of the Spirit, even we ourselves are groaning in ourselves, waiting for our sonship, that is, the redemption of our body. 8:24 For* we were saved in hope; but hope which is seen, is not hope; for* why does anyone even hope for what he sees? 8:25 But if we hope for what we do not see, then we are waiting for it through endurance.

     8:26 Now likewise*, the Spirit is also jointly helping our weaknesses; for* we do not know what we will be praying for, that is according to what is essential for us; but the Spirit himself is petitioning on our behalf with unspeakable groans; 8:27 and he who is searching the hearts knows what the mindset of the Spirit is, because he is petitioning on behalf of the holy-ones according to the will of God. 8:28 Now we know {F} that all things work together toward good, to those who love* God, to those who are an invited one according to his purpose. 8:29 Because, whom he knew beforehand, he also determined beforehand, one transformed to the image of his Son, *that* he himself might be the firstborn among many brethren; 8:30 and whom he determined beforehand, he also invited these and whom he invited, he also made these righteous and whom he made righteous, he also glorified these.

     8:31 Therefore what will we say to these things? If God is working on our behalf, who is against us? 8:32 Yet, he who did not spare his own Son, but gave him up on behalf of us all, how will he not also be granting to us all things together with him? 8:33 Who will accuse anything against God's chosen? It is God who makes righteous. 8:34 Who is the one who condemns? Christ is the one who died, but rather, who was also raised up from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who also is petitioning on our behalf.

     8:35 Who will be separating us away from the love* of Christ? Will affliction or distress or persecution or famine or nakedness or peril or sword? 8:36 Just-as it has been written, 'Because of you we are slain the whole day. We were counted as sheep of the slaughter.' {Psa 44:22} 8:37 But we are victorious in all these things through the one who loved* us. 8:38 For* I have confidence, that neither death, nor life, nor messengers, nor principalities, nor powers, nor present things, nor future things, 8:39 nor height, nor depth, nor some other created thing, will be able to separate us away from the love* of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

    {Footnotes: Rm 8:28: that to those who love* God, he is working all things toward good for those who are invited according to his purpose.}

[Romans 9]

     9:1 I say the truth in Christ, I am not lying, my conscience is testifying together with me in the Holy Spirit, 9:2 that great sorrow is in me and constant anguish in my heart. 9:3 For* I was praying for myself to be accursed from the Christ on behalf of my brethren, my relatives according to the flesh, 9:4 who are Israelites, whose is the sonship and the glory and the covenants* and the institution of the law and the divine service and the promises; 9:5 whose are the fathers and from whom is the Christ according to the flesh, who is over all; God is gracious* forever. Amen.

     9:6 But it is not such-as that the word of God has fallen short. For* all those from Israel, (these are not Israel); 9:7 neither are they all children, because they are Abraham's seed, but instead, 'Seed will be called to you in Isaac.' {Gen 21:12} 9:8 This thing is, the children of the flesh, these are not children of God, but the children of the promise is counted toward a seed. 9:9 For* this is the word of promise, 'I will come according to this season and Sarah will be with a son.' {Gen 18:10} 9:10 Now not only so, but also Rebecca having an impregnation from one man, our father Isaac; 9:11 for* the children were not yet born, nor had practiced anything good or evil, in order that the purpose of God according to his choice might abide, not from works, but from the one who is calling. 9:12 It was said to her, 'The greater will be serving* the inferior.' {Gen 25:23} 9:13 Just-as it has been written, 'Jacob I loved*, but Esau I hated.' {Mal 1:2,3}

     9:14 Therefore what will we say? There is not unrighteousness with God, is there? Let it not happen! 9:15 For* he says to Moses, 'I will show-mercy to whomever I show-mercy and I will have pity on whomever I have pity.' {Exo 33:19} 9:16 Therefore consequently*, it is not from the one who wills, nor from the one who runs, but from God, the one who shows-mercy. 9:17 For* the Scripture says to Pharaoh, 'I lifted you up *for this same thing, *that I myself might show in you my power and *that my name might be thoroughly proclaimed in all the earth.' {Exo 9:16} 9:18 Therefore consequently*, he shows-mercy on whom he wills and he hardens whom he wills.

     9:19 Therefore you will say to me, Why is he still finding-fault? For* who is standing against his will? 9:20 But-rather, O man, who are you who answers back against God? The molded thing will not say to the one who molded it, why did you make* me so, will it? {Isa 45:9?} 9:21 Or does the potter not have authority over the clay, to make* out of the same batch one vessel *for honor and another *for dishonor? 9:22 But what if God, willing to show his wrath and to make his power known, carried us, vessels of wrath having been framed *for destruction, in much patience; 9:23 and in order that he might make known the riches of his glory upon vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand *for glory, 9:24 whom he also invited us, not only from the Jews, but also from the Gentiles?

     9:25 As he also says in Hosea, 'I will be calling those who are not my people, my people, and those not beloved, beloved.'{Ho. 2:23} 9:26 And it will be, in the place where it was said to them, 'You* are not my people; they will be called sons of the living God there.' {Ho. 1:10} 9:27 Now Isaiah cries on behalf of Israel, 'If the number of the sons of Israel is like the sand of the sea, only the remnant will be saved; 9:28 for* he is completing and cutting-short the word in righteousness because having been cut-short, the Lord will make* the word upon the earth.' {Isa 10:22, 23} 9:29 And, just-as Isaiah has said before, 'If the Lord of Hosts did not leave us a seed, we would have become like Sodom and we would have been similar to Gomorrah.' {Isa 1:9}

     9:30 Therefore what will we say? That the Gentiles, who were not pursuing righteousness, grabbed righteousness, but the righteousness from faith. 9:31 But Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, did not attain to that law of righteousness. 9:32 Why? Because it was not from the faith, but as it was from works of the law, for* they stumbled on the stone of stumbling; 9:33 just-as it has been written, 'Behold, I place a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense in Zion and everyone who believes on him will not be ashamed.' {Isa 8:14 & 28:16}

[Romans 10]

     10:1 Brethren, indeed the delight of my heart and my supplication to God on behalf of Israel, is *for their salvation. 10:2 For* I testify to them that they have a zeal for God, but not according to full knowledge. 10:3 For* being ignorant of God's righteousness and seeking to establish their own righteousness, they did not subject themselves to the righteousness of God. 10:4 For* Christ is the end of the law *for righteousness to everyone who believes. 10:5 For* Moses writes about the righteousness from the law, 'The man who have practiced those things will be living in them.' {Lev 18:5 Ezek. 20:11} 10:6 But the righteousness from faith says thus, 'You should not say in your heart, Who will be ascending into heaven?' (This is: to lead Christ down.) 10:7 Or, 'Who will be descending into the abyss?' (This is: to lead Christ up from among the dead.) 10:8 But what does it say? 'The declaration is near you, in your mouth and in your heart.' {Deu 30:12-14?} This is the declaration of the faith which we are preaching: 10:9 that if you confess the Lord Jesus in your mouth and if you believe in your heart that God raised him up from the dead, you will be saved; 10:10 for* it is believed in the heart toward righteousness and it is confessed with the mouth toward salvation. 10:11 For* the Scripture says, 'Everyone who believes upon him will not be ashamed.' {Isa 28:16} 10:12 For* there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for* the same Lord is Lord of all, being rich toward all who are calling upon him; 10:13 for* everyone, 'Whomever calls upon the name of the Lord will be saved.' {Joel 2:32, Acts 2:21} 10:14 Therefore how will they call upon him in whom they did not believe? But how will they believe of whom they did not hear? But how will they hear without someone preaching? 10:15 But how will they preach, if they are not sent? Just-as it has been written, 'How Beautiful are the feet of those who are proclaiming the good-news of peace and of those who are proclaiming the good-news of good things!' {Isa 52:7}

     10:16 But not all obeyed* the good-news; for* Isaiah says, 'Lord, who believed our report?' {Isa 53:1} 10:17 Consequently*, the faith comes from our report but our report comes through the declaration of God. 10:18 But I am saying, 'Did they not hear?' But-rather, 'Their sound went out into all the earth and their declarations to the limits of the inhabited-earth.' {Psa 19:4} 10:19 But I am saying, Did Israel not know? First Moses says, 'I will provoke you* to jealousy upon what is no nation. I will rouse you* to anger upon a nation which has no understanding.' {Deu 32:21} 10:20 Now Isaiah is very daring and says, 'I was found by those who are not seeking me. I became manifest to those who are not asking for me.' {Isa 65:1} 10:21 But he says to Israel, 'The whole day, I outstretched my hands to a disobedient and contradicting people.' {Isa 65:2}

[Romans 11]

     11:1 Therefore I say, God did not shove away his people, did he? Let it not happen! For* I am also an Israelite, from the seed of Abraham, from the tribe of Benjamin. {Psa 94:14} 11:2 God did not shove away his people which he knew beforehand. Or do you* not know what the Scripture says in regard to Elijah? How he petitions God against Israel, saying, 11:3 'Lord, they killed your prophets and made ruins of your altars, and I was left alone and they are seeking my life.' {1Ki. 19:10,14} 11:4 But what does the divine-answer say to him? 'I left to myself seven thousand men, who did not bow the knee to Baal.' {1Ki. 19:18} 11:5 Therefore so there has also become a remnant according to the chosen of grace in this current time. 11:6 But if it is by grace, it is no more from works, otherwise grace becomes grace no more. But if it is from works, no more is it grace; otherwise work is work no more. 11:7 Therefore what? What Israel is seeking after, it did not obtain this, but the chosen obtained it and the rest were hardened; 11:8 just-as it has been written, 'God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes in order that they should not see and ears in order that they should not hear, until this very day.' {Isa 29:10, 6:9} 11:9 And David says, 'Let their table become *for a snare and *for a trap and *for an offense and *for a repayment to them. 11:10 Let* their eyes be darkened not to see and may you always bow down their back.'{Psa 69:22-23}

     11:11 Therefore I say, They did not trip in order that they might fall, did they? Let it not happen! But salvation has come to the Gentiles in their trespass, *that* they might provoke them to jealousy. 11:12 Now if their trespass is the riches of the world and their loss is the riches of the Gentiles; how-much more is their fullness? 11:13 For* I speak to you* who are Gentiles, inasmuch as I am indeed an apostle of Gentiles, I glorify my service; 11:14 if somehow I provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and might save some out of them. 11:15 For* if the casting away of them is the reconciliation of the world, what is the receiving of them, except life from the dead?

     11:16 Now if the first-fruit is holy, also is the batch and if the root is holy, also are the branches. 11:17 But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive-tree, were grafted in among them and became a fellow partner of the root and of the plumpness of the olive-tree among them. 11:18 Do not boast against the branches, but if you are boasting against them, you are not bearing the root, but the root bears you. 11:19 Therefore you will say, Branches were broken off, in order that I might be grafted in. 11:20 Well; they were broken off in their unbelief but you are standing in the faith. Do not be cavalier, but fear; 11:21 for* if God did not spare what is according to nature: branches; lest he will neither be sparing you. 11:22 Therefore, behold the kindness and severity of God, indeed severity upon those who fell short, but kindness upon you, if you remain in the kindness of God: otherwise you also will be cut off. 11:23 And also those will be grafted in, if they do not remain in their unbelief; for* God is able to graft them in again. 11:24 For* if you were cut off from what is according to nature a wild olive-tree and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive-tree; how-much more these, the ones according to nature, will be grafted into their own olive-tree?

     11:25 For* brethren, I do not wish you* to be ignorant of this mystery (that* you* may not be too prudent with yourselves), that a hardening has happened partially to Israel, till the fullness of the Gentiles should enter; 11:26 and thus all spiritual Israel will be saved, just-as it has been written, 'There will come out of Zion, he who rescues and he will turn away various ungodlinesses from Jacob. 11:27 And this is my covenant* with them, whenever I take away their sins.' {Isa 59:20-21, 27:9} 11:28 According to the good-news they are indeed enemies because of you*, but according to the choice, they are beloved because of the fathers. 11:29 For* the gifts* and the calling {Or: invitation; and in all other instances in the MLV} of God are unregretted. 11:30 For* just-like you* were also previously disobedient to God, but now you* were shown-mercy by the disobedience of these, 11:31 so now these also were disobedient in your* mercy, in order that they might also be shown-mercy. 11:32 For* God locked up all together in disobedience, in order that he might show-mercy upon all.

     11:33 O the depth of the riches, and of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and untraceable his ways! 11:34 For* who knew the mind of the Lord? Or who has become his counselor? {Isa 40:13} 11:35 Or who first-gave to him and it will be repaid to him again? 11:36 It is because all things are from him and through him and to him. The glory is for him, forever. Amen.

[Romans 12]

     12:1 Therefore brethren, I am encouraging you* through the mercies of God, to present your* bodies as a living sacrifice, holy, well pleasing to God, which is your* logical divine service. 12:2 And not to fashion yourselves to this age, but to be transfigured by the renewal of your* mind, *that* you* may be proving in you what is the will of God: the good and well pleasing and mature.

     12:3 For* I say, through the grace which was given to me, to everyone who is among you*, not to have high-notions more than what it is essential to be mindful of. But to be mindful of this grace, *that* he should be sensible, as God divided to each one a measure of faith. 12:4 For* just-as we have many members in one body, and all the members do not have the same function; 12:5 so we, the many, are one body in Christ, and every one members of one another. 12:6 Now having assorted gifts* according to the grace which was given to us; if prophecy, then prophesy according to the analogy of the faith; 12:7 if service, in the service; if he who is teaching, in the teaching; 12:8 if he who is encouraging, in the encouragement; he who is giving, in liberality; he who is governing, do in diligence; he who is showing-mercy to others, do with* joyfulness.

     12:9 Let the love* be non-pretended, abhorring evil things, joining yourselves to what is the good thing. 12:10 Be tenderly loving to one another in the love of the brethren; being the leader for one another in honor; 12:11 not lazy in your diligence being zealous in your spirit; serving* in the Lord; 12:12 rejoicing in the hope; enduring in your affliction; persevering in your prayer; 12:13 sharing in the needs of the holy-ones; pursuing your hospitality. 12:14 Speak* well of those who are persecuting you*; speak* well and do* not curse. 12:15 Ready to rejoice with the ones rejoicing and to weep with the ones weeping. 12:16 Being mindful of the same things toward one another and not being mindful of the exalted things, but involve yourself with the humble. Do* not become too prudent with yourselves. 12:17 Repay to no one evil in exchange-for evil, while planning-for good things in the sight of all men. 12:18 If possible, what is from you should be at peace with all men.

     12:19 Beloved, do not be avenging yourselves, but give* a chance for the wrath of God; for* it has been written, 'Vengeance is for me. I will be repaying, says the Lord.' {Deu 32:35} 12:20 Therefore, if your enemy hungers, morsel to him {i.e. feed him bites}; if he is thirsty, deliver to him a drink; for* while doing* this, you will be piling up hot-coals of fire upon his head. 12:21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with* good.

[Romans 13]

     13:1 Let every soul be subject to the authorities which are superior to him; for* there is no authority if not by God, and the authorities which are, have been appointed by God. 13:2 So-then, the one who is resisting the authority is standing against the commandment of God, and those who are standing against it will be receiving judgment for themselves. 13:3 For* rulers are not a fear to those of the good works, but to those of the evil works. And you do not wish to be afraid of the authority, do you? Do* what is the good thing and you will have praise from it; 13:4 for* he is a servant of God to you *for what is the good thing. But if you are doing* what is the evil thing, be afraid; for* he is not wearing the sword vainly; for* he is a servant of God, an avenger *for wrath to the one who is practicing the evil thing. 13:5 Hence, it is a necessity to be subject yourself to him, not only because of the wrath, but also because of the conscience. 13:6 For* you* are also paying taxes because of this; for* they are ministers* of God, persevering toward this same thing. 13:7 Therefore give* to all, their dues: tribute to whom tribute; tax to whom tax; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.

     13:8 Owe* nothing to anyone, except to love* one another; for* he who loves* the other has fulfilled the law. 13:9 For* the commandments: 'Do not commit adultery; Do not murder; Do not steal; Do not lust, and if there is some other commandment in this word, it is summed up in the commandment: 'You will love* your neighbor like yourself.' {O.T. 'desire' (but with objects); Exo 20:13-15, 17; Lev 19:18} 13:10 Love* works no evil toward his neighbor. Therefore, love* is the fulfillment of the law.

     13:11 Also this, knowing the time, that it is already the hour to be awakened from sleep; for* our salvation is now nearer than when we first believed. 13:12 The night has progressed, and the day has drawn near. Therefore, we should place away from ourselves the works of darkness, and should clothe ourselves with the weapons of light. 13:13 We should walk decently, like in the day; not in revelings and drunkennesses, not in acts of sleeping-around and in unbridled-lusts, not in strife and in jealousy. 13:14 But clothe* yourselves with the Lord Jesus Christ, and do* not practice forethought *for the lusts of the flesh.

[Romans 14]

     14:1 But receive* the one who is weak in the faith, yet not *for the discernings of his reasonings. 14:2 One has faith to eat all things, but the one who is weak eats herbs. 14:3 Do not let the one who eats, scorn the one who does not eat; and do not let the one who does not eat, judge the one who eats; for* God himself has received him. 14:4 Who are you who is judging another's domestic servant? He stands or falls to his own lord. Now, he will be made to stand up; for* it is possible for God to stand him up. 14:5 One indeed is judging a day beside another day; but one is judging every day the same; let each one be fully assured in his own mind. 14:6 He who is mindful of the day, is mindful of it to the Lord; and he who is not mindful of the day, is not mindful of it to the Lord; and he who eats, eats to the Lord, for* he gives-thanks to God. And he who does not eat, he does not eat to the Lord, and gives-thanks to God. 14:7 For* none of us is living to himself, and none dies to himself. 14:8 For* in both, if we live, we live to the Lord; and if we die, we die to the Lord; therefore, in both, if we live or die, we are the Lord's. 14:9 For* Christ both died and rose* up and lived *for this, in order that he might have lordship over both the dead and the living. 14:10 But you, why do you judge your brother? Or you also, why do you scorn your brother? For* we will all be standing-before the judicial-seat of Christ. 14:11 For* it has been written, 'As I live, says the Lord, that every knee will bow to me, and every tongue will confess to God.' {Isa 45:23} 14:12 Therefore consequently*, each of us will be giving an account concerning himself to God.

     14:13 Therefore we should no longer judge* one another, but rather judge this: you are not to place a stumbling block, or offense, in the way of the brother. 14:14 I know, and have confidence in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is desecrated through itself, except to the one who counts something to be desecrated, to that one it is desecrated. 14:15 But if your brother is made sorrowful because of food, you are no longer walking according to love*. Do not destroy that man, on behalf of whom Christ died, with your food. 14:16 Therefore do not let your* good thing be blasphemed; 14:17 for* the kingdom of God is not about food and drink, but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Spirit. 14:18 For* the one who is serving* Christ in these things is well pleasing to God and approved by men. 14:19 Therefore consequently*, we may pursue the things of peace, and the things from the building up of those *for one another. 14:20 Do not tear-down the work of God because of food. All things indeed are clean, but it is evil to the man who eats through a stumbling block. 14:21 It is good not to eat meats, nor to drink wine, nor anything in which your brother stumbles or is offended or is weak. 14:22 Do you have faith? Have it to yourself in God's sight! The fortunate one is not judging himself in what he is approving. 14:23 But he who is doubting has been condemned if he eats, because he does not eat out of faith, and everything which is not from faith is sin.

     14:24 Now to the one who is able to establish you* according to my good-news, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, having been kept-silent in times everlasting, 14:25 but now, having been manifested, and through the prophetic Scriptures, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, was made known to all the nations, into the obedience of the faith; 14:26 to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, in whom is the glory forever. Amen.

[Romans 15]

     15:1 Now we, the able, ought to bear the weaknesses of the powerless and not to please ourselves. 15:2 Let each of us please his neighbor *for what is the good thing toward building him up. 15:3 For* also Christ did not please himself, but, as it has been written, 'The reproaches of those who are reproaching you fell upon me.' {Psa 69:9} 15:4 For* as many things as were written beforehand were written beforehand *for our instruction, in order that through the endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. 15:5 Now the God of the endurance and the encouragement gives to you* to be mindful of the same thing among one another according to Christ Jesus, 15:6 in order that you* may glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ united with* one mouth. 15:7 Hence receive* one another, just-as Christ also received you*, to the glory of God. 15:8 But I am saying that Christ Jesus has become a servant of the circumcision on behalf of the truth of God, *that* he might confirm the promises given to the fathers, 15:9 and that the Gentiles are to glorify God on behalf of his mercy; as it has been written, 'Because of this, I will profess you among the Gentiles and sing-praise to your name.' {Psa 18:49} 15:10 And again he says, 'Gentiles be* joyous with his people.' {Deu 32:43} 15:11 And again, 'Praise* the Lord, all the Gentiles, and let all the peoples praise* him.' {Psa 117:1} 15:12 And again, Isaiah says, 'There will be the root of Jesse and he who was raised* up to rule over the Gentiles; upon him the Gentiles will hope.' {Isa 11:1, 10} 15:13 Now the God of hope may fill you* with all joy and peace while* you have believed, *that* you* may abound in hope in the power of the Holy Spirit.

     15:14 And my brethren, I myself also have confidence concerning you*, that you* yourselves are full of goodness, having been filled with all knowledge, being able also to admonish others. 15:15 But I wrote more-daringly to you* brethren individually, as reminding you* again, because of the grace which was given to me by God, 15:16 *that* I might be a minister* of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, performing the sacred work of the good-news of God, in order that the offering up of the Gentiles might become acceptable, having been made holy in the Holy Spirit.

     15:17 Therefore, I have my boasting in Christ Jesus in the things pertaining to God. 15:18 For* I will not dare to speak of anything of the things which Christ did not work through me, except *for the obedience of the Gentiles, in word and works, 15:19 in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of the Spirit of God, so-then, as for me to have fulfilled the good-news of the Christ from Jerusalem and in a circle, as far as Illyricum. 15:20 And so, I am making it my aim to proclaim the good-news, not where Christ was already named, in order that I might not build upon another's foundation; 15:21 but, as it has been written, 'They will see, to whom it was not reported concerning him and those who have not heard will understand.' {Isa 52:15}

     15:22 Hence also, I was being hindered to come to you* these many times, 15:23 but now, having no longer a place in these districts and having a longing to come to you* from many years ago. 15:24 As I should travel through toward Spain, I will be coming to you*, (for* I am hoping to see you* while I am traveling through and to be sent onward from there by you*, if first I may be partially filled from you*). 15:25 But now, I am traveling to Jerusalem, serving the holy-ones. 15:26 For* Macedonia and Achaia were delighted to make* a certain generosity to the poor of the holy-ones in Jerusalem. 15:27 For* they were delighted and they are their debtors. For* if the Gentiles shared in the spiritual things of them, they owe it to them also to minister* to them in the fleshly things. 15:28 Therefore, having completed this thing and having sealed this fruit for them, I will be going away into Spain through you*. 15:29 Now I know while coming to you*, I will be coming in the fullness of the blessing of the good-news of the Christ.

     15:30 Now brethren, I am encouraging you* through our Lord Jesus Christ and through the love* of the Spirit, to struggle together with me, and on my behalf in your* prayers to God; 15:31 in order that I may be rescued away from those who are disobedient in Judea and in order that my service which I have *for Jerusalem might become acceptable to the holy-ones; 15:32 in order that I may come to you* in joy through the will of God and I may rest together with you*. 15:33 Now the God of peace is with all of you*. Amen.

[Romans 16]

     16:1 Now I commend to you* Phoebe our sister, who is a servant of my needs from the congregation* in Cenchreae: 16:2 in order that you* should accept her in the Lord, worthy of the holy-ones, and that* you* should stand beside her in whatever matter she has need from you*. For* she herself has also become an assistant of many, and of me myself.

     16:3 Greet* Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus, 16:4 who risked their own neck on behalf of my life; whom I not only give-thanks, but also all the congregations* of the Gentiles; 16:5 and the congregation* who is in their house. Greet* Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first-fruit of Achaia to Christ. 16:6 Greet* Mary, who labored much *for us. 16:7 Greet* Andronicus and Junias, my relatives and my fellow captives, who are notable even among the apostles, who has also happened to be in Christ before me. 16:8 Greet* Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. 16:9 Greet* Urbanus our fellow worker in Christ and Stachys my beloved. 16:10 Greet* Apelles, the approved, in Christ. Greet* those who are from the household of Aristobulus. 16:11 Greet* Herodion my relative. Greet* those from the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 16:12 Greet* Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who are laboring in the Lord. Greet* the beloved Persis, who labored much in the Lord. 16:13 Greet* Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine. 16:14 Greet* Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Hermas, Patrobas and the brethren who are together with them. 16:15 Greet* Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the holy-ones who are together with them. 16:16 Greet* one another with* a holy kiss. The congregations* of Christ greet you*.

     16:17 Now brethren, I am encouraging you*, to note those making {Or: practicing} the dissensions and the offenses contrary to the teaching which you* learned and are practicing, and shun* away from them. 16:18 For* such are not serving* our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly, and they are deceiving the hearts of the guiltless through their smooth-talk and the speaking well of the guiltless.

     16:19 For* your* obedience has reached out to all men. Therefore I rejoice over you*, but I wish for you* to be indeed wise as to what is good, and harmless to what is evil. 16:20 Now the God of peace will crush the Adversary under your* feet shortly.

     The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ is among you*.

     16:21 Timothy my fellow worker greets you*, and Lucius and Jason and Sosipater, my relatives. 16:22 I Tertius, who wrote this letter, greet you* in the Lord. 16:23 Gaius greets you*, my host and of the whole congregation*. Erastus the steward of the city greets you* and Quartus the brother. 16:24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ is with all of you*. Amen.

     {Verses 16:25-27 in the KJV are in the Majority Text as Romans 14:24 - 14:26.}

     16:25 {14:24} Now to the one who is able to establish you* according to my good-news and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery which having been kept-silent in times everlasting, 16:26 {14:25} but now having been manifested and by the prophetic Scriptures, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, was made known to all the nations, into the obedience of the faith; 16:27 {14:26} to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, in whom is the glory is forever. Amen.

     {NOTES: You should read the 'Definitions' Section and other non-bible sections.}

{{ Introduction to 1 Corinthians 56-58 AD

    If you could find a place where sin was rampant, it was Corinth. Then what was worse is the attitude common to today of 'it really doesn't matter.' The more garbage you take in, the more chance of it influencing you! Then the congregation in Corinth seems to take everything to the extreme.

    They were not unified in much of anything and filled full of splits, and the 'anything goes' policy so common to many religious groups of today. 'In the same...' 'be mindful of the same...' is a common commandment throughout all the letters; but not in this congregation. Paul's use of sarcasm is superior throughout both Corinthian letters, 'Christ sent me not to immerse, but to proclaim the good-news' actually both are commands of the Lord written at the ends of the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, witnessed in Acts 2:38 'to be saved.' Man's foolishness is used by God to promote His purpose. 4:10, apostles are foolish, but they (the Corinthians) are wise, and many more places.

    Then in chapter 2, Paul goes from foolishness of man to wisdom of man vs. God's wisdom, which progresses onward to the spiritual things. Chapter 3, Paul calls them babies and fleshly. Then he talks about the foundation (Jesus) that he and Apollos built that they should make sure they build properly on it. Because even if Paul's work fails at judgment day (the Corinthians); Paul is still saved as though he walked through the fire. In chapter 4 & 9, Paul calls them arrogant, they are judging him. They have everything, even reigning like kings; they do not need Paul. In chapter 5, a man is fornicating with his stepmother. Instead of disciplining him, so he would not spend eternity away from them; they just do not care. This 'leavening' could ruin the batch of them, and they just do not get it. Then they have lawsuits against each other. Paul finally lists all of their past sins (possibly current ones) and tells them no one who practices them will inherit heaven. The Corinthians thought you could be like the world and still be in the Lord's body at the same time. Chapter 7 deals with marriage and the unmarried. Then in Chapters 8, 10, they add idolatry to the list. Also in Chapters 10, 11 it was pointed out how they are abusing the Lord's Supper and the love feast versus how it should be respected. We know from Acts 20:7, this is one of the reasons the congregations come together every Sunday. Chapters 12, 13, 14 talks about the spiritual gifts Christians had during the first century used to evangelize the world (Mark 16:15-20). In 13:10, he tells them the completed word will stop all of this, so put love higher on the list, it never fails. Once again, the Corinthians took this to extremes as about everything else they did. In 15, Adam and Jesus are compared, and the last part talks about the time when Jesus will come back where 'in the blink of an eye' we will inherit our heavenly bodies. In 16, he concludes with his typical greetings and encouragements.}}

Modern Literal Version Preface & Appendix , copyright 1999, 2014 by G. Allen Walker for the MLV New Testament Committee.
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